(A) Peking University Law School has the longest history among Chinese law schools. The Imperial University of Peking (Jingshi Daxuetang), the predecessor of Peking University, was established during the “Hundred Days' Reform” in 1898, and was the first national institution of modern higher education in China. At the time of its establishment, the Imperial Peking University offered legal courses to students in the area of the advanced political science, the third specific area or subject of the university. In 1902, legal courses were offered by the political science department as indicated in the Constitution of the Imperial Peking University authorized by the Qing Court. In January 1904, the Law Department was established within the Political and Legal School following the amendment of the constitution.
(B) The program offered by the Law Department then was a four-year program, covering two types of courses: one focused on law-related subjects and the other on subjects besides the law. Law-related subjects included Science of Jurisprudence, Study on Legal Code of Qing, Chinese Criminal Law History, History of Chinese Legal Systems, Comparative Studies of Commercial Laws of Eastern and Western Countries, Comparative Studies of Constitutional Laws, Comparative Studies of Civil Laws and Civil Procedure Laws, Comparative Studies of Criminal Laws and Criminal Procedures, Foreign Affair Laws, European Laws that covered Roman laws and laws of the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Subjects not relating to laws included Studies of Foreign Government Administration, Commercial Finance and Government Finance. Students were allowed to take other courses or subjects after they finished the above two types of courses. In addition to courses, students were required to write and submit a graduation thesis in order to graduate from the Law Department. Members of the faculty of the Law Department included Wang Jiaju, Cheng Shude, Fenlaisen (United Kingdom), Li Fang, Wang Jipan, Chen Lu, Shen Jinyi, Asataro Okada (Japan), Bai Yedi (France), Borders (France), Zhen Junyun, Kerbo (United Kingdom), Wang Baotian, Ji Jing, Xu Siyun and Ba He.
(C) In 1911, the Imperial University of Peking underwent a difficult period of time and was temporarily closed in connection with the uprising in south China known as the “1911 Revolution,” which eventually overthrew the Qing Dynasty. In 1912, the Imperial University of Peking was reopened following the establishment of the Republic of China. Cai Yuanpei, the first Education Minister of the Republic of China, started to reform the imperial higher education system. In May 1912, the Imperial University was renamed as the Government University of Peking. Yan Fu was appointed the first President of the university. In February 1913, the Political and Legal School was renamed as the Law School headed by Sun Xiangling. In the same year, a new group of students enrolled in the Legal Division of the Law School. In January 1917, Cai Yuanpei became PKU President, and undertook a series of measures to reform the then-existing systems of both the university and the Law School. In November 1917, Li Dazhao was appointed President of Peking University Library and taught courses relating to social legislation to law students in the Legal Division of the Law School. Many famous and talented scholars, including Zhou Jiayan, Zuo Demin, Xu Congqin, Huang Zhensheng, Xu Chi, Huang Youchang, Tao Lugong Tao, Hu Jun, Ma Yinchu and Zhang Zuxun, were appointed as professors for the undergraduate programs in law. A number of scholars, including Wang Yanzu, Guo Ruxi, Zhu Xiling, Han Shuzu, Li Jingzao, Huang Guocong, Lun Zheru, and Huang Zhenhuang, were appointed as professors for the pre-college program. Government officials were no longer appointed as full-time professors. In addition, courses were redesigned. At the end of the year, the Legal Division had a total number of 206 undergraduate students and 222 students who were enrolled in the pre-college program, and was the biggest division in Peking University. In addition to the reformation of the teaching system, a legal research institute, headed by Huang Youchang, was established within the Legal Division where different professors focused their research in different areas. For example, Wang Chonghui focused his research on comparative law, Zhang Jiasen on international law, Zhou Jianyan on administrative law, Luo Wenhan on criminal law, Zuo Demin on insurance law, Kang Baozhong on the Chinese legal history, Chen Changle on the United States Constitution, Wang Jingqi on China's international relations and international treaties, and Xu Congqin on the laws relating to the business and factory management. In 1918, certain new reform measures were further implemented. Huang Basheng, Huang Youchang, Liang Bi, Wang Jingqi, Sun Xiaoyi, Lei Xiaomin, Zhou Jiayan, Kang Xinfu, Zuo Demin, Chen Jie, Peng Tuzhen, Yu Qichang and He Jihong formed a law professor committee to undertake the responsibility of managing the Legal Division. In 1919, the Legal Division was renamed the Law Department whose dean was elected by the law professor committee. Furthermore, half of the mandatory courses became selective courses. Students were allowed to select to enroll in courses offered by both the Law Department and other departments. These new measures greatly increased the morale of professors and students. They were inspired to be active, frequently participating in academic lectures or seminars such as the journalism seminar, the philosophy seminar, and the Marxist philosophy seminar, learning advanced thoughts and cultures of other countries in the world, participating in the New Culture Movement and the May Fourth Movement, and organizing a legal research association to study and discuss a series of important domestic and foreign legal issues. From then on, the Law Department of Peking University gradually became an institution that shapes the legal education and research in modern China.
(D) In the 1920s, the quality of the curriculum of the Law Department was gradually improved and the faculty was expanded, but the Law Department also underwent significant changes during this period as the result of changes experienced by Peking University. From 1924 to 1925, the Law Department offered more than 30 courses, and the number of the faculty members was also increased. The mandatory courses offered by the Law Department during this period included General Principles of Civil Law, General Principles of Creditor's Rights Law, Specific Provisions on Creditor's Rights Law, Right in Rem of Civil Law, Family Law, Civil Law of Inheritance, Civil Procedure Law, Corporate Law, Negotiable Instruments and Ships Law, General Principles of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure Law, Constitutional Law, General Principles of Administrative Law, Specific Provisions of Administrative Law, Foreign Laws, Public International Law, Private International Law, Principles of Economics, and Specialized Study conducted in the form of writing papers and translating books. Selective courses included Legal Philosophy, Social Legislation, History of Chinese Legal System, Roman Law, Criminal Policy, Court Organization Law, Bankruptcy Law, Forensic Science, Sociology, General Principles of Public Finance, and second foreign language. The professors or faculty members primarily included Yu Qichang, Zhang Xiaoyi, Wang Shijie, Zhang Zhirang, Liang Renjie, Zuo Demin, Lin Zhijun, Huang Youchang, Chen Jingkun, Shi Zhiquan, Bai Pengfei, Li Pu, Yan Shutang, Xia Qin, Du Guoxiang, Cheng Shude, Lin Bin and Feng Chenjun. However, in July 1927, warlord Zhang Zuolin, then leader of the Beijing authorities, closed Peking University and had nine colleges and universities in Beijing merged into “Capital College” (Jingshi Daxuexiao) in order for easier management. The Peking University Law School was merged into Peking University of Political Science and Law and was renamed as the Second College of Law. In June 1928, the “Capital College” was renamed as “Chung Hua University” by the Nanjing Government, and then Beiping University on August 16. In August 1929, as the result of the pressure from the teachers and students of Peking University upon the Nanjing Government, Chung Hua University was changed back to National Peking University. The Law Department also returned to Peking University.
(E) When Jiang Menglin became President of Peking University in December 1930, he implemented several measures to reform its education system by following the examples of universities in the United States. He undertook a series of reform measures in the legal area as well. He established the Law School headed by Zhou Binglin. Three departments were established within the Law School, namely, the Political Science Department, the Economics Department and the Law Department. Dai Xiuzan was Dean of the Law Department. Each department has a Department Affairs Committee headed by its Dean, the members of which consisted of the Dean, professors and associate professors. The courses offered by the Law Department were divided into mandatory courses and elective courses. The mandatory courses included the Philosophy of the Kuomintang (Wang Xianjing), An Introduction to Political Science (Pu Xuefeng), An Introduction to Economics (Lu Yuwen), Psychology (Fan Jichang), Chinese, first foreign language, second foreign language, General Principles of Civil Law (Yan Shutang), Right in Rem of Civil Law (Yu Qichang), General Principles of the Creditor's Rights Law (Yang Liu), Specific Provisions of the Creditor's Rights Law (Dai Xiuzan), Family Law, Civil Law of Inheritance (Lin Bin), Special Civil Laws that included subjects relating to Corporate Law taught by He Jihong, Insurance Law taught by Li Pu, Negotiable Instruments Law and Maritime Law taught by Dai Xiuzan, Civil Procedure Law (Li Huailiang and Shi Zhiquan), Criminal Procedure Law (Chen Jinkun), Specific Provisions of Criminal Law(Lin Bin), Roman Law (Zhao Zhiyuan), Enforcement Law (Yu Guangxi), Administrative Law ( Bai Pengfei), Public International Law (Wang Huacheng), Private International Law (Yan Shutang), Selected Readings in English law (Yan Shutang). The selective courses included History of Chinese Legal System (Cheng Shude), Selective Topics on Chinese Legal System (Cheng Shude), Jurisprudence (Zhao Yuan), Sociology (Xu Deheng), German Law (He Jihong), Bankruptcy Law (Wang Jiaju), Labor Law (He Jihong), Forensic Science (Liu Beilin). The credit system was implemented. Students were required to take classes for at least 28 weeks each year, and 132 credits in four years were needed for graduation. During the first two years, a student was not allowed to select more than 22 credits each semester, and, in the last two years, not more than 18 credits each semester. When students graduated, they would receive a Bachelor's Degree. In 1934, the Law School Research Institute was established and headed by Dean of the Law School to offer graduate programs to law students.
(F) In 1937, Beiping and Tianjin were occupied by Japanese troops. Peking University, Tsinghua University and Nankai University moved to the southern part of China, and these three universities were re-organized as the National Provisional University of Changsha. In the spring of 1938, this new university moved to Kunming, and changed its name to the National Southwest Associated University. During the following eight years, a number of teachers and students of the Law Department of Peking University joined the army to fight against the Japanese troops, and others joined the Law and Business School of the National Southwest Associated University. The Law and Business School was comprised of the Law Department, the Political Science Department, the Economics Department, the Sociology Department and the Business Department. As only Peking University had a law department among the three universities forming the National Southwest Associated University, the Law Department of the National Southwest Associated University was primarily comprised of members of the Law Department of Peking University. During the eight years of the National Southwest Associated University, Yan Shutang was Dean of the Law Department. In addition to Professor Yan, other professors of the Law Department included Dai Xiuchan, Cai Shuheng, Rui Mu, Fei Qing, Chen Jinkun, Luo Wengan, Zhang Qitai, Li Shitong, Li Zuyin, Zhang Jian, Ma Zhifu, Zha oFengjie, and associate professors such as Lin Liangtong.
The Law Department in the National Southwest Associated University emphasized both research and practice, and the curriculum also reflected a balance of both. Courses offered during this period included Chinese, English, Chinese History, Logic, Natural Science, Western History, An Introduction to Philosophy, Sociology, Political Economy, An Introduction to Law, General Principles of Civil Law, Constitutional Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law, General Principles of Criminal Law, Specific Provisions of Criminal Law, Civil Procedure Law, Commercial Law, Corporate Law, Bankruptcy Law, Administrative Law, Chinese Judicial Organizations, History of Chinese Legal System, Private International Law, Labor Law, Social Legislation, Jurisprudence, Criminology, Criminal Psychology, Maritime Law, Insurance Law, Civil Enforcement Law, Procedural Law, Land Law, Negotiable Instruments Law, Criminal Policy and Forensic Science. A graduation thesis was also required. The credit system was implemented and 140 credits were needed before graduation. About 20 students enrolled in the Law Department each year, and in the eight-year period, about 200 undergraduate students and 3 graduate students received their education from the Law Department in the National Southwest Associated University. Many professors and students of the Department of Law participated in patriotic activities passionately.
(G) In May 1946, the National Southwest Associated University was closed, and the three universities were re-established separately. Peking University moved back to then Beiping, and started the new term in the fall of that year. The Law Department, the Political Science Department and the Economics Department were integrated into the new Law School. Before the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, each of Zhou Binglin, Dean of Law School, Professor Ju Gongquan and Professor Fei Qing was a dean of the Law Department for a period of time. The curriculum became complete, and the faculty was also reinforced. A number of courses such as Comparative Constitutional Law and Judicial System Research were added. During this period, professors of the faculty included Yan Shutang, Fei Qing, Cai Shuheng, Dai Xiuzan, Rui Mu, Dai Jian, Li Shitong, Huang Juefei, Liu Zhi, Ji Gongquan, Li Zuyin, Wang Keqin, Zhang Zhongde, Zhao Fengjie, Gong Xiangrui and Yan Jinghui, and associate professors such as Wang Xuan. The total number of undergraduate and graduate students reached six hundreds and exceeded the number of graduates from National Southwest Associated University. Both the teachers and the students of the Law School played an active role in the student movements at the eve of the success of Chinese revolution.
(H) In 1949, the birth of the People's Republic of China brought about the hope of transformation to the Law Department of Peking University. The curriculum design was substantially adjusted. Courses included Marxist-Leninist Legal Theory, State law, Principles of the New Criminal Law, Principle of the New Civil Law, Principles of Constitutional Law, Marriage Law, the Public International Law, Administration of Justice, Principles of Commercial Law, Criminology, Forensic Sciences, Policy and Ordinance, The Soviet Union Legal Studies, Selected Reading of Masterpiece, Research on Public International Law and Private International Law. A graduation dissertation was also required. Besides these courses, the students were also required to select certain number of courses offered by other departments. The courses were divided into mandatory courses and selective courses, and were offered in connection with the credit system. Most of the faculty members of the Law Department who taught in the department before the founding of the People's Republic of China were retained by the department. Zhang Zhirang, He Sijing and other professors also taught classes on a part-time basis. In 1952, the Law Department of Peking University was separated from Peking University and merged into the Beijing College of Political Science and Law as the result of the nationwide university department or school re-organization that year.
(I) In 1954, the Peking University Law Department was reestablished under the direct guidance of Dong Biwu, then vice premier and director of the Political and Legislative Affairs Committee of the Government Administrative Council of China's Central People's Government. Chen Shouyi, then Director of the Education Department of China's Ministry of Justice, was appointed as the first Dean of the re-established Law Department. The guiding principles of the reestablishment were “to rely on veteran cadres, to cultivate young teachers, to retain experienced and capable senior teachers, and to give full play to the senior teachers' role.” In August, 41 new faculty members of the Law Department gathered at Peking University. They were originally from different organizations including the Central Political Science and Law Cadre School, Beijing College of Political Science and Law, Renmin University of China, political and legal affairs departments of the central government and Peking University. Among them were a number of professors and scholars who had studied in Europe and the United States. On September 12, 1954, Professor Ma Yinchu, President of Peking University, solemnly declared the re-establishment of the Law Department. The re-established Law Department had a Department's Office, a State and Law Research Office, a State Law Research Office, a Civil Law Research Office, a Criminal Law Research Office and a library.
In August 1956, three more teaching and research sections were added, and they were the State and Law History Research Office, the Trial Law Research Office and the International Law Research Office. At that time, the basic idea guiding the reestablishment of the Law Department and its teaching plans was “to learn from the Soviet Union based on China's reality.” In July 1958, Zhang Dingcheng, Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate, gave a talk in the Law Department and in August 1958, so did Ma Xiwu, Vice President of the Supreme People's Court. From 1954 to 1966, the teaching plan of the Law Department had experienced six major changes as the result of the social and economic developments and the adjustments of such plans during the implementation process.
Because legal education is closely related to practices, faculty members and students took the view that it was very important to combine studies with social practices. In this regard, they actively participated in the drafting of various laws, frequently attended conferences organized by governments, or practiced law as lawyers or acted as people's jurors for litigations in courts. Former Dean Chen Shouyi was also the chairman of the Beijing Bar Association. More than 10 members of the faculty whose research focused on civil law, criminal law, procedural law and other areas of laws practiced as part-time lawyers and represented clients in a number of important civil and criminal cases. For example, in January 1956, several members of the faculty were involved the trial by the Supreme People's Court on Japanese war criminals and the then widely reported Li Wangming fraud case. Faculty members also paid visits to other countries, a substantial number of which were to the Soviet Union and eastern European countries. For example, Dean Chen Shouyi visited eastern European countries four times, and these countries also sent quite a few scholars to visit Peking University Law Department. With respect to the backgrounds of students, from 1954 to 1956, about 120 students enrolled in Peking University Law Department, half of whom were cadres or employees working in public institutions.
(J) Between 1957 and the beginning of the “Cultural Revolution” in 1966, the teaching and research activities were greatly affected by political movements and social background during this period. Certain faculty members and students still have memories of their difficult experiences in the various political movements such as the “Anti-rightists” movement and the “Great Leap Forward” movement. During this period, the curriculum increased the portion of courses or activities in relation to social work, internship and field work. The term of the program was changed from four years to five years. Career objectives of graduates were “researchers and teachers on political science and law,” “political and legal workers” and “researchers and teachers on theories.”
In 1960, the Civil Law and Criminal Law Research Offices were combined into Legal Practice Research Office. During this period, although the Law Department continued to enroll students, the number of students kept decreasing each year. In 1962, only 19 students were enrolled. From 1957 to 1966, the total number of enrollment was only about 360. In 1959, the Law Department started to offer a three-year graduate program, and, by 1966, 24 students had been enrolled in this program.
(K) During the 10 years of the “Cultural Revolution,” Peking University Law Department was greatly affected. In 1970, the decision to close the Law Department was announced. The faculty and the staff fought hard in solidarity against this decision, and the department was eventually preserved, which was one of the only two political science and law departments or schools that remained at that time. Faculty members were retained and books in the library were preserved, which made it possible for the Law Department to resume its teaching and research activities after the “Cultural Revolution.” Between 1966 and 1971, no students were enrolled, nor were any teaching activities conducted. In 1972, a group of faculty members started teaching right after they allowed to do so. They first established a short-term training program in Beijing for cadres in the judicial system, and then another program for cadres in five provinces and cities in North China. In 1973, 36 faculty members of the Law Department of Renmin University of China came to teach in Peking University, most of who returned to Renmin University after the Law Department there was re-established in 1978. From 1974 to 1976, a total number of more than 150 workers, farmers and soldiers were admitted. In addition, many classes for cadre-training were offered. All of these contributed significantly to the restoring of legal education and legal system after the “Cultural Revolution.” More and more courses were offered during this period, and the number of courses offered to workers, farmers, soldiers and cadre students surpassed 20. These courses included Philosophy, Political Science, Economics, History of the Chinese Communist Party, Selected Reading of Marxist Classics, A Study on State and Law, History of Chinese Legal System, Chinese Constitution, Foreign Constitutions, Political and Legal Systems of Western Countries, History of Western Legal Thoughts, History of Foreign Legal System, Criminal Law, Civil Law, Criminal Procedural Law, Civil Procedural Law, Marriage Law, Labor Reforming Law, Criminal Investigation, International Law, Legal Instruments and so forth.
(L) In 1977, along with the normalization of China's national university enrollment system, the Law Department of Peking University reached a new turning point. Since the third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CCP in 1978, the Law Department has undergone a fast developing period. In this new era, the basic guiding principles and the primary objectives of the Law Department became clearer, and legal education and research were conducted in close connection with the county's goals of building a rich, democratic and civilized nation, with the economic system reform, and with the process of opening up to the outside world. The Law Department has emphasized recruiting and maintaining a high quality faculty, improving its curriculum, focusing on research and production of high quality academic work, training students in an all-around and quality-oriented approach in order for them to be able to satisfy requirements of different environments, and promoting international legal education and cultural exchanges, all of which have contributed significantly to the building of PKU Law Department into a leading teaching and research institution in the country. The Law Department was, and still is, one of the biggest departments or schools in Peking University. From 1977, a number of well-known scholars, including Chen Shouyi, Ma Zhenming, Zhang Guohua, Zhao Zhenjiang, Wei Zhenyingand Wu Zhipan, acted as deans of the Law Department.
(M) At the beginning of the new era, the recruitment of faculty members was a central task for the Law Department. A number of talents were recruited by the Law Department, or transferred from other law departments or schools. Since 1979, annual reviews of faculty members have been conducted based on which promotion decisions have been made. The Law Department also recruited its doctoral or master graduates into its faculty, or doctoral graduates or talents from overseas. As of February 1998, the total number of the faculty was 112, among whom 31 were professors and 41 were associate professors or held positions equivalent to associate professors. Among professors, 21 were qualified to supervise doctoral degree candidates and 28 received allowances granted by the central government to experts who made outstanding contributions to the country. 24 members of the faculty received doctor's degree at that time. In addition, a number of well-known scholars were appointed to be adjunct professors of the Law Department.
(N) The Law Department has paid continuous attention and emphasis on the establishment of teaching and research institutions. By February 1998, nine research offices had been established, which were Jurisprudence Research Office, Legal History Research Office, Constitutional and Administrative Law Research Office, Criminal Caw and Criminology Research Office, Civil and Commercial Law Research Office, Economic Law Research Office, International Economic Law Research Office, International Law Research Office, Procedural Law and Forensic Evidence Research Office. In particular, the jurisprudence research and the international law research of the Law Department are the two “key areas of law research” identified and approved by then National Education Commission to be developed as a national priority. In addition, 12 research institutes or centers were established under or run by the Law Department. These institutes or centers are the Institute of International Law, Institute of Economic Law, Crime Research Center, Science and Technology Law Research Center, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Law Research Center, Legislative Research Center, Financial Law Research Center, Institute of Comparative Law and Law & Sociology, Legal Information Center, Labor Law Research Institute, Institute of International Economic Law and Tax Law Research Center. Furthermore, a few other organizations, including Tonghe Law Firm, Yanyuan Law Firm and Center for Women's Law and Legal Service, are affiliated with the Law Department.
(O) The system of assigning majors or specialties within law has been improved, and the curriculum has been further refined. As for the majors or specialties that undergraduate students were assigned to, the Law Department offered the first international law major on the Chinese mainland to undergraduate students in 1979, then the economic law major in 1980, and the international economic law major in 1993, all of which contributed to the formation of a comprehensive legal education program. After several rounds of further adjustments, undergraduate students after entering into the Law Department were allowed to choose their majors or specialties, and their graduation certificates would indicate two majors or specialties if they completed required credits for the two majors or specialties, compared to the prior practice where students were assigned to one major or specialty and their graduation certificate would indicate this one major or specialty. At the same time, to implement the principle of “strengthening the foundation and playing down the importance of the division of majors," the number of basic courses such as contracts, torts, and so forth, has been increased. The Law Department has offered more than 70 courses for undergraduate students. In particular, 17 courses are mandatory courses for all the undergraduate students, namely, Jurisprudence, Chinese History of Legal Thoughts, Chinese History of Legal System, Western History of Legal Thoughts, Foreign History of Legal System, Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, An Introduction of Civil Law, Contract Law, Criminal Law, International Law, Private International Law, Administrative Procedure Law and Civil Procedure Law, Criminal Procedure Law, Legal Writing, Legal Practice and Ethics. 6 courses were mandatory for students who were majored in law, namely, Intellectual Property Law, Marriage, Family law and Inheritance law, Corporate Law, Science of Judicial Forensics, Criminology, and Reform through Labor Law. 9 courses were mandatory for students who were majored in the economic law, namely, Introduction to Economic Law, Corporate law, Anti-competition Law, Planning law and Investment law, Finance law and Tax law, Financial Law, Accounting Law and Audit law, Labor Law and Social Security Law and Environmental Law. 8 courses were mandatory for students who were majored in the international law, namely, China's History of Foreign Relations, International Environmental Law, International Economic Law, International Organizations, Law of the Sea, Aviation and Space Law, International Judicial Precedents and Foreign Language. 8 courses were mandatory for students who were majored in the international economic Law, namely, International Trade Law, International Investment Law, International Financial Law, International Tax Law, Maritime Law, International Transfer of Technology Law, International Economic Organizations and Foreign Language. The Law Department also offered 23 selective courses, including Modern Western Philosophy of Law, Law of Legislation, Contemporary Western Legal Thoughts, Chinese Judicial System, China's Legal Culture, Hong Kong Basic Law, Foreign Constitutional Law, Civil Servant Law, Roman law, Foreign Civil and Commercial Law, Practical Criminal Law, Juvenile Law, Foreign Criminal Law, Criminal Investigation, Criminal Technology Science, Forensic Science, Insurance Law, Legislative History of China's Economy, Foreign Marriage and Family Law, Negotiable Instruments Law, International Tax Law, and Topics on International Law and International Organizations.
As for majors or concentrations for graduate students, graduate students had been able to focus their study in 36 areas within 12 majors by 1998. These 12 majors were Jurisprudence, History of Legal Thoughts, History of Legal System, Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Criminal Law, Civil Law, Procedural Law, Economic Law, International Economic Law, International Law and Environmental Law. The Law Department was also able to doctoral programs in 8 majors, including Jurisprudence, History of Legal Thoughts, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, International Economic law, International Law, Environmental Law and Economic Law. The total number of master and doctorate candidates enrolled in recent years is more than 600, which makes the Law Department one of the largest departments and schools in Peking University in this respect.
(P) The Law Department pays attention to combining teaching with academic research, and encourages faculty members to offer high quality courses as well as new courses. The Law Department also encourages faculty members to focus on research and produce more and good academic work. By 1997, members of the faculty had published nearly one hundred textbooks, more than 160 books and more than 1 400 articles. Among textbooks, more than 30 are in connection with projects sponsored by then National Education Commission or the Ministry of Justice. A number of textbooks, including the Basic Theory of Law, An Introduction to Constitution Law, Civil Law, Civil Procedures, International Law and Economic Law Principles received awards from these ministries.
(Q) Teaching and training is one of the most important tasks of the Law Department, and then later the Law School, of Peking University. Between 1977 and 1997, 2 906 students enrolled in the four-year undergraduate program except for the years between 1989 and 1992 when the program was five years. Between 1978 and 1997, 1 402 students enrolled in the graduate programs, among whom 178 are Ph.D. candidates, and more than 200 were from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and foreign countries or regions. Since 1977, 2 418 students received bachelor's degrees, 887 received master's degrees and 71 Ph.D. degrees. The Law Department also started to offer training programs in 1993 in Beijing, Shenzhen, Shantou, Kunming, Guangzhou and Yantai, which focused on areas of economic law, criminal law and legal theory, civil law and international economic law. In addition, the Law Department also provided training to judges, prosecutors or others working for governments or private firms. For example, between 1985 and 1988, more than 600 students from the Supreme People's Procuratorate received training from the Law Department. Between 1986 and 1990, the Law Department offered distant education programs to over 5 000 persons who worked for the armed police in China. Furthermore, the Law Department was one of the training centers for senior judges approved by the Ministry of Education and the Supreme People's Court, and provided training to over 600 judges over the 10 years after 1988. Starting in 1991, the Law Department worked with Hong Kong Shue Yan University to offer both undergraduate and graduate programs to students in Hong Kong, which trained a significant number of residents in Hong Kong in the area of Chinese mainland law.
(R) The Law Department, and later the Law School, is also one of the departments or schools in Peking University that has had close relationships with foreign counterparts. In 1972 when the People's Republic and Japan established diplomatic relations, the Law Department started to reveive scholars from Japan and other countries. The year of 1979 witnessed a visit climax of American scholars after China and the United States established diplomatic relations. Since then, the Law Department and later the Law School, has conducted increasing exchanges with its foreign partners. The Law School has had close relationships with law schools of universities in other countries or regions, including Harvard University, Columbia University, Stanford University, University of Michigan, University of California at Berkeley, University of Washington, University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, Waseda University, Hosei University, Meiji University, Kyushu University, Nagoya University, Hokkaido University, Aichi University, Ritsumeikan University, Hitotsubashi University, Niigata University, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Max Planck Institute of Germany, University of Paris, University of Melbourne, University of Sydney, Moscow University, City University of Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong and National Taiwan University. The Law School has also hold or jointly sponsored a great number of international conferences and workshops, such as the Sino-Japan Academic Conference on Environment Law in 1985, the International Conference on Lawmaking and Modernization in 1990, the International Conference on Comparative Law in 1992 and the Conference on Property Rights in 1994 (jointly sponsored with Washington University in Seattle).
With missions and responsibilities, Peking University Law School will draw lessons from history and gear to the future, endeavoring to build a world-class law school in the 21st century.